Civic Education Paper 2, May/June 2014  
Questions: 1 2 3 4   Main
General Comments

Question 4

Question 4:     (a) Define human trafficking.
                        (b) State six causes of human trafficking in Nigeria.

This question was fairly attempted by the candidates with the overall performance just a little above average. Some candidates confused ‘human trafficking’ with ‘human traffic’ or ‘road traffic’. A large number of candidates that attempted it gave good definition with full explanation.  However, many candidates did not do well in the (b) part and they scored low marks by listing the points without further explanations. The candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:



  • Human trafficking is the illicit/illegal business in the sale and transportation of

human beings for economic and other selfish purposes. Usually the unsuspecting victims are lured away into forced labour, prostitution and other forms of abuse.

  • It also refers to the recruitment, transportation, harbouring or receipt of persons

by deception, force or threat of harm for the purpose of exploitation.

  •       Poverty  - this makes victims very vulnerable.
  •       Youth unemployment.
  •       Disorientation of values/moral decadence in society.
  •       Greed and get-rich-quick attitude.
  •       Corruption in the society which encourages adventures into crimes.
  •       Bad leadership which fails to protect citizens and provide for their social, 

      economic and other related security.

  • Ignorance or lack of knowledge/awareness on the part of victims of human


  • Social, economic and related deprivation which breeds desperation.

                        (ix)       Political instability.
                         (x)       Inefficiency/ineffectiveness of law enforcement agents makes apprehension of
human traffickers difficult.
                        (xi)       Inadequate punishment of offenders.
                        (xii)      Conflicts/wars.
                        (xiii)     Low self-esteem can make individuals become victims of human trafficking.
                        (xiv)     Negative peer influence contributes to human trafficking.
                        (xv)      The demand for cheap labour within and outside Nigeria.
                        (xvi)     Rise in demand for commercial sex workers encourages human trafficking.
                         (xvii)   Illiteracy/lack of education.
                        (xviii)   Lack of parental guidance and control.




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